Olivier Mourgue enrolled at the École Boulle in Paris in 1954 before attending theein, the École nationale supérieure des Arts décoratifs from 1958. Subsequently Olivier Mourgue worked for several years for the Agence d'Architectur Intérieur Gautier-Delaye in Paris. Between 1963 and 1966, Olivier Mourgue designed several pieces of furniture for Airborne.
In 1966 Olivier Mourgue opened a design studio in Paris and created designs for Mobilier National and Prisunic. From 1977 Olivier Mourgue designed accessories and car interiors for RenaultAutoausstattungen for Renault. Mourgue's best known work is "Djinn", seat furniture he designed for Airborne in 1965. "Djinn" is a set of several chairs, sofas, and benches in organic forms, the first furnishings to have been made of polyurethane foam on tubular steel frames. These pieces were so futuristic at the time that they were chosen by director Stanley Kubrick to furnish the interior of the spaceship in the film "2001: A Space Odyssey" (1968).
Olivier Mourgue also designed the furnishings for the French Pavilions at Expo '67 in Montreal and Expo '70 in Osaka. In 1970 Olivier Mourgue designed a mobile studio on wheels as well as a bathroom with soft plastic walls and floors. In 1976 Olivier Mourgue moved his studio to Kéralio in Brittany.
From 1976 Olivier Mourgue was a professor at the Institut de Géo-Architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Brest.