The Secession (from the Latin secessio, or split) refers to the conscious departure of certain groups of artists from official and academic circles. Much like the historicism of the Gothic Revival, the Secession took a stand against the standardization of form and industrialized manufacturing, and may be viewed as part of the fight against mass production and its perceived threat to human individuality. However, Secessionist art was also directed against the propagation of historical styles, and turned more towards stylized plant-like forms. Typical of the movement is an ornamental, linear graphic style exemplified by the curving lines and floral motif of Peter Behrens’ woodcut The Kiss. Secessionist movements formed at the end of the 19th century in European art centers; in Germany, the Jugendstil, named after the magazine Der Jugend, was centered in Munich, Berlin, and Darmstadt. In France and Belgium the Secession was called art nouveau, mainly understood as a reaction against impressionism. In Italy, the Liberty style emerged at the 1902 Turin Exhibition, and in England a new style grew out of the Arts and Crafts movement inspired by William Morris. The Austrian group was known as the Wiener Secession after its home in Vienna, with Gustav Klimt as its standard bearer; the Secession Building designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich became known as the movement’s "temple". Within the Secession movement were painters, sculptors, and even architects, who turned away from official art. They sought an integrated conception of art and attempted to create a synthesis of all the arts. Applied art was particularly influenced by the art of the Secession.
Among members of the Secession are: Gustav Klimt, Antonio Gaudì, Victor Horta, Carl Fabergé, Peter Behrens, Koloman Moser, Alfons Mucha, Walter Maria Olbrich, Franz von Stuck, Fritz von Uhde, Henry van de Velde, and Otto Wagner.
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