Realism means above all the particular style that emerged in France in the second half of the 19th century. Realism is a countermovement to impressionism, which wanted to capture the brief moment, the fleeting, atmospheric impression of a landscape. Realism, on the other hand, depicted the world just as it is and lent this kind of painting a certain permanence. Social-critical elements also entered into realism; for example, the movement "social-critical realism" in art history did not gloss over its representations either formally or thematically, and thus refused to idealize humans or nature. In addition, social-critical subject matter was shown, such as for example the poor working conditions in factory buildings.
Important representatives of realism in the 19th century are: Gustave Courbet, Jean-François Millet, Honoré Daumier, Adolph von Menzel, Wilhelm Leibl, Ilja Repin.